Police Science

The Police Science program provides training for careers in law enforcement as well as related fields in corrections, probation, security and community service. The program offers one level of job entry training, as well as an Associate’s Degree designed to enhance professional skills and qualifications. The job entry training level is the Reserve Police Officer Certificate of Achievement. This level consists of the Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST) certified Module III and Module II, Basic Peace Officer Training courses. Satisfactory completion of these courses establishes eligibility for hire as a Level-III or Level-II Reserve Peace Officer in the State of California.

With the Reserve Police Officer Certificate of Achievement a Police Science Associate’s Degree is attainable with an additional 18 units of required courses, 18 units of General Education and 5 units of electives.

Basic Peace Officer Training courses are non-traditional courses subject to State regulations prescribed by the California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST). Students wishing to enroll in any POST certified Basic Peace Officer Training courses must be 18 years of age, possess a valid driver’s license, be fingerprinted and present a Department of Justice signed clearance letter to possess a firearm on the first day of class. There are also certain physical and moral character requirements for peace officers. Students wanting to register for POST courses at COD who are unsure if they meet the POST requirements are urged to contact the Academy Director or designee prior to enrollment. Please refer to the Public Safety Academy under Academic Programs on the College of the Desert website for more detailed program information or call (760) 346-8041 Ext. 3765 or 3083.

Advisor: Neil Lingle
nlingle@collegeofthedesert.edu
(760) 346-8041 ext 3083

Administration of Justice (AJ)

AJ 001  Introduction To Criminal Justice Units: 3

This course introduces students to the characteristics of the criminal justice system in the United States. Focus is placed on examining crime measurement, theoretical explanations of crime, responses to crime, components of the system, and current challenges to the system. The course examines the evolution of the principles and approaches utilized by the justice system and the evolving forces which have shaped those principals and approaches. Although justice structure and process is examined in a cross cultural context, emphasis is placed on the US justice system, particularly the structure and function of US police, courts, and corrections. Students are introduced to the origins and development of criminal law, legal process, and sentencing and incarceration policies. (C-ID AJ 110)
Lecture Hours: 54         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Letter
Prerequisite: None
Advisory: ENG-070
Limitation on enrollment: None
Transfer Status: CSU/UC                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: C2                 CSU GE: D0                 IGETC: 4J

AJ 002  Concepts Of Criminal Law Units: 3

This course offers an analysis of the doctrines of criminal liability in the United States and the classification of crimes against persons, property, morals, and public welfare. Special emphasis is placed on the classification of crime, the general elements of crime, the definitions of common and statutory law,and the nature of acceptable evidence. This course utilizes case law and case studies to introduce students to criminal law. The completion of this course offers a foundation upon which upper-division criminal justice course will build. The course will also include some limited discussion of prosecution and defense decision making, criminal culpability, and defenses to crimes. (C-ID AJ 120)
Lecture Hours: 54         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Letter
Prerequisite: AJ-001 or concurrent enrollment
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: None
Transfer Status: CSU/UC                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AJ 003  Legal Aspects Of Evidence Units: 3

This course includes a study of origin, development, philosophy and constitutional basis for the Rules of Evidence. It includes constitutional and procedural considerations affecting search and seizure, kinds and degrees of evidence and the rules governing admissibility at trial, judicial decisions interpreting individual rights and case studies. (C-ID AJ 124)
Lecture Hours: 54         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Letter
Prerequisite: AJ-001 or concurrent enrollment
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: None
Transfer Status: CSU                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AJ 004  Criminal Court Process Units: 3

This course provides an examination and analysis of due process in criminal proceedings from pre-arrest through trial and appeal utilizing statutory law and state and constitutional law precedents. (C-ID AJ 122)
Lecture Hours: 54         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Letter
Prerequisite: AJ-001 or concurrent enrollment
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: None
Transfer Status: CSU                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AJ 005A  Community And The Justice System Units: 3

This course examines the complex, dynamic relationship between communities and the justice system in addressing crime and conflict with an emphasis on the challenges and prospects of administering justice within a diverse multicultural population. Topics may include the consensus and conflicting values in Cultural, Religion, and Law. (C-ID AJ 160)
Lecture Hours: 54         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Letter
Prerequisite: AJ-001 or concurrent enrollment
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: None
Transfer Status: CSU/UC                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: C3                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AJ 006  Criminal Investigation Units: 3

This course provides students with basic principles of all types of investigations utilized in the Justice System. Coverage includes human aspects in dealing with the public, specific knowledge necessary for handling crime scenes, interviews, evidence, surveillance, follow-up, technical resources and case preparation. (C-ID AJ 140)
Lecture Hours: 54         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Letter
Prerequisite: AJ-001 or concurrent enrollment
Advisory: ENG-070
Limitation on enrollment: None
Transfer Status: CSU                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AJ 008  Patrol Operations Units: 3

Topics discussed in this course include exploration of theories, philosophies, and concepts related to the role expectations of the line enforcement officer which include patrol, traffic, and public service responsibilities.
Lecture Hours: 54         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Letter
Prerequisite: AJ-001 or concurrent enrollment
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: None
Transfer Status: CSU                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AJ 009  Traffic Enforcement Units: 3

Students study basic accident investigation, the use of the State Accident Report Form, the principles of "selective" enforcement, parking and intersection control, basic provisions of the California Vehicle Code governing the operation of motor vehicles, and the responsibilities of the community in traffic control.
Lecture Hours: 54         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Letter
Prerequisite: AJ-001 or concurrent enrollment
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: None
Transfer Status: CSU                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AJ 010  Juvenile Procedures Units: 3

This course introduces major types of criminal behavior, role of offenders and factors which contribute to criminality or delinquency. It covers methods used in dealing with offenders in the justice system; the changing role of law enforcement and judicial, probation, parole and institutions; changes of the law in crime control and treatment processes, and techniques in handling juveniles. (C-ID AJ 220)
Lecture Hours: 54         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Letter
Prerequisite: AJ-001 or concurrent enrollment
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: None
Transfer Status: CSU                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AJ 016  Narcotics Control Units: 3

This is a study of the laws relating to narcotics and dangerous drugs as well as the procedures and problems in investigations and the control of violations of narcotic laws. Students learn how to identify narcotics and dangerous drugs, how to assess their effect on users, and how to prepare a case for court presentation.
Lecture Hours: 54         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Letter
Prerequisite: AJ-001 or concurrent enrollment
Advisory: ENG-071
Limitation on enrollment: None
Transfer Status: CSU                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AJ 017  Natural Resources Law Enforcement Units: 3

This course provides information relating to enforcement of natural resources and wildlife laws in the United States and California. Topics studied include the relationships between Federal and State natural resources and wildlife laws and regulations, laws as resource and wildlife management tools, conservation and perpetuation of wildlife and other natural resources, review of State and Federal resource management agencies, law enforcement officer qualifications, duties and responsibilities, enforcement procedures, court systems, fines and forfeitures, hunter safety program, public responsibilities, preservation of the environment and conservation of wildlife. (Equivalent to NR-017.)
Lecture Hours: 54         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Letter
Prerequisite: None
Advisory: ENG-070
Limitation on enrollment: None
Transfer Status: CSU                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AJ 021  Introduction To Forensics Units: 3

This course provides an introduction to the role of forensics in criminal investigations. It examines the methods utilized in the forensic analysis of crime scenes, pattern evidence, instruments, firearms, questioned documents and controlled substances. (C-ID AJ 150)
Lecture Hours: 54         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Letter
Prerequisite: AJ-001 or concurrent enrollment
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: None
Transfer Status: CSU                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AJ 024  Report Writing Units: 3

This course emphasizes the procedures and practices commonly used to gather data and information and prepare a variety of written reports and records. Students learn to write criminal justice reports that meet statistical, legal, and prosecution requirements of the Criminal Justice System. The course provides students with abundant practice in writing effective reports, bulletins, memos, letters, and other short papers.
Lecture Hours: 54         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Letter
Prerequisite: AJ-001 or concurrent enrollment
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: None
Transfer Status: CSU                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AJ 030  Introduction To Corrections Units: 3

This course provides a history of and critical analysis of punishment, the various types of punishment, alternatives to punishment, and the impact of punishment on the Criminal Justice System, corrections, a critical examination of the types of correctional institutions and the clients housed in each institution, and an examination of contemporary correctional issues. (C-ID AJ 200)
Lecture Hours: 54         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Letter
Prerequisite: AJ-001 or concurrent enrollment
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: None
Transfer Status: CSU                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AJ 095A  Administration Of Justice Work Experience Units: 1-8

This work experience course of supervised employment is designed to assist students to acquire desirable work habits, attitudes and skills so as to enable them to become productive employees. This course also provides students with career awareness for jobs. Credit may be accrued at the rate of one to eight units per semester for a maximum of sixteen units (combined total of all Work Experience units). Additionally, students must work 75 paid hours or 60 non-paid hours per unit earned. This type of work experience is available to students whose job or occupational goals are directly related to Administration of Justice.
Lecture Hours: None         Lab Hours: 600          Repeatable: Yes
Grading: Letter
Prerequisite: None
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: None
Transfer Status: CSU                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

Advanced Officer Training (AOT)

AOT 001  Background Investigation Course Units: 2

This course is directed for patrol officer/deputy who are assigned to a background investigation unit. This course will discuss ADA (American Disability Act) issues, POST (State of California, Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training)requirements, document identification and interview techniques related to an employment interview.
Lecture Hours: 36         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Pass/No Pass
Prerequisite: None
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: Must be currently employed by a law enforcement/public safety agency or have completed a Basic Peace Officer Academy.
Transfer Status: None                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AOT 002  ID Theft Investigation - Basic Course Units: 0.5

This course is designed for the patrol level deputy/first responder. It contains information relevant to low-tech identity theft crimes. This course also introduces the high-tech aspect of identity theft with computers, including "phishing", wireless network schemes, and how computers are used in identity theft crimes. The course also presents identification, collection, and preservation of evidence. Jurisdiction of specific crimes and how the First Responder must investigate and/or refer the victim to the appropriate agency. This course will also clarify the elements of specific crimes relative to Identity Theft and touch upon the fine line between what is criminal vs. civil matter.
Lecture Hours: 9         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Pass/No Pass
Prerequisite: None
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: Must be currently employed by a law enforcement/public safety agency or have completed a Basic Peace Officer Academy.
Transfer Status: None                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AOT 003  ID Theft Investigation - Adv. Course Units: 0.5

This course differs from Identity Theft, Basic, as it offers advanced technical information that our investigators and those with computer skills could understand. Curriculum addresses such issues as current crime trends, investigating these increasingly complex cases. The course builds on skills learned in the Identity Theft, Basic course, to include instructions on search warrant preparation for this type of crime. This course gives the student detailed knowledge of computer forensics and how computers can help their investigation, including more complex computer techniques in recognizing "phishing" and other high-tech means the identity thief uses.
Lecture Hours: 9         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Pass/No Pass
Prerequisite: AOT-002
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: None
Transfer Status: None                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AOT 004  Field Training Officer Course - Basic Units: 2.5

This course is designed to provide the student with an understanding of the purpose of the field training program. This course will focus on the fundamentals of basic training in patrol concepts and procedures. This class is POST Certified and will be taught with the Riverside Sheriff Department's POST Certification. Total of 40 hours as required by POST Certification.
Lecture Hours: 45         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Pass/No Pass
Prerequisite: None
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: Must be currently employed by a POST law enforcement agency as a Sworn Peace Officer.
Transfer Status: None                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AOT 005  Field Training Officer Course - Update Units: 1.5

This course is designed to provide the student with an overview of the current legal issues and responsibilities of the field training officer. The course will focus on vehicle pursuits, weapons update, building searches, prisoner restraints, and the use of force. This class is POST Certified and will be taught with the Riverside Sheriff Department's POST Certification. Total of 24 hours as required by POST Certification.
Lecture Hours: 27         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Pass/No Pass
Prerequisite: None
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: Must be currently employed by a POST law enforcement agency as a Sworn Peace Officer.
Transfer Status: None                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AOT 006  Casino-Related Crime Investigation Units: 0.5

This course is designed for the patrol officer/deputy responding to gambling-related and casino/card room crimes and for the investigator assigned to investigate gambling-related offenses. This course will familiarize the law enforcement officer with the history of gaming in California, issues related to tribal casinos, crime trends in the gambling industry, investigative resources, evidence, as well as prosecutorial considerations in investigating gambling offenses. This class is POST Certified and will be taught with the Riverside Sheriff Department's POST Certification. Total of 8 hours as required by POST Certification.
Lecture Hours: 9         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Pass/No Pass
Prerequisite: None
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: Must be currently employed by a law enforcement/public safety agency or have completed a Basic Peace Officer Academy.
Transfer Status: None                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AOT 007  Interview & Interrogation Course - Basic Units: 1.5

This course will provide the student with the fundamentals and techniques for properly interviewing victims, witnesses, and suspects in a field setting. Methods for preparing for an interview, establishing a rapport with people, and interview strategies will be discussed. Additionally, methods for using a tape recorder and techniques for manually recording an interview, along with dealing with different personalities and ethnic groups will be covered. This class is POST Certified and will be taught with the Riverside Sheriff Department's POST Certification. Total of 27 hours as required by POST Certification.
Lecture Hours: 27         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Pass/No Pass
Prerequisite: None
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: Must be currently employed by a law enforcement/public safety agency or have completed a Basic Peace Officer Academy.
Transfer Status: None                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AOT 008  Interview & Interrogation Course - Adv. Units: 2.5

This POST certified course will provide advanced interview and interrogation techniques for experienced law enforcement personnel assigned to patrol or investigations and others who conduct criminal interviews and interrogations. This course will further refine the skills and techniques required to properly obtain statements, incriminating statements, admissions, and confessions. This class is POST Certified and will be taught with the Riverside Sheriff Department's POST Certification. Total of 40 hours as required by POST Certification.
Lecture Hours: 45         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Pass/No Pass
Prerequisite: None
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: Must be currently employed by a law enforcement/public safety agency or have completed a Basic Peace Officer Academy.
Transfer Status: None                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AOT 009  Courtroom Testimony & Demeanor Units: 0.5

This course is designed to provide the student with an overview of the courtroom testimony process. The course will focus on courtroom dynamics, personal demeanor and the verbal presentation of factual information. This class is POST Certified and will be taught with the Riverside Sheriff Department's POST Certification. Total of 9 hours as required by POST Certification.
Lecture Hours: 9         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Pass/No Pass
Prerequisite: None
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: Must be currently employed by a law enforcement/public safety agency or have completed a Basic Peace Officer Academy.
Transfer Status: None                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AOT 010  Internet Undercover Investigations Units: 0.5

This course is designed to teach the student about Internet pedophiles and how to set up and establish an undercover operation to identify, apprehend, and prosecute them. The student will learn the basics of establishing an undercover Internet child profile and learn to identify and have conversations with Internet pedophiles. It is geared toward investigators who are interested in sexual assault/child abuse cases, or Internet crimes against children.
Lecture Hours: 9         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Pass/No Pass
Prerequisite: None
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: Must be currently employed by a law enforcement/public safety agency or have completed a Basic Peace Officer Academy.
Transfer Status: None                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AOT 011  Crime Scene Investigation Course Units: 1.5

This course reviews principles of evidence collection, crime scene examination, recording, gathering trace evidence, and collecting and packaging of biological evidence, i.e., body fluids. It will introduce the student to basic fundamentals of a digital camera and its use and function in a crime scene investigation. Total of 27 hours as required by POST Certification.
Lecture Hours: 27         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Pass/No Pass
Prerequisite: None
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: Must be currently employed by a law enforcement/public safety agency or have completed a Basic Peace Officer Academy.
Transfer Status: None                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AOT 012  Fingerprint/Specialized Technique-Latent Units: 1

This course is designed to present a study of the scientific development of fingerprints and their retrieval. The course will focus on the identification, fiction ridges, and basic categories of fingerprints. Topics will include the methods of processing fingerprints, types of surfaces, and powder processing versus chemical processing. Total of 14 hours as required by POST Certification.
Lecture Hours: 18         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Pass/No Pass
Prerequisite: None
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: Must be currently employed by a law enforcement/public safety agency or have completed a Basic Peace Officer Academy.
Transfer Status: None                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AOT 013  Search Warrant Preparation Units: 0.5

This course is designed to instruct law enforcement personnel in the proper techniques used in the preparation of search warrants. The student will learn methods in the development, obtaining, and executing search warrants. This course discusses the legal and statutory requirements for obtaining a search warrant. It blends classroom and practical exercises, and stresses officer safety. This course is POST Certified and will be taught with the Riverside County Sheriff Department's POST Certification. Total of 8 hours is required by POST Certification.
Lecture Hours: 9         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Pass/No Pass
Prerequisite: None
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: Must be currently employed by a law enforcement/public safety agency or have completed a Basic Peace Officer Academy.
Transfer Status: None                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

AOT 014  Search Warrant Execution Units: 0.5

This course is designed to instruct law enforcement personnel in the proper techniques used on the development and execution of warrant services. Special emphasis is placed on scouting, approach, forced entry techniques, and room-to-room clearing utilizing force-on-force training and FX marking cartridges. Course must be taken in conjunction with search warrant preparation. This class is POST Certified and will be taught with the Riverside Sheriff Department's POST Certification. Total of 8 hours is required by POST Certification.
Lecture Hours: 9         Lab Hours: None          Repeatable: No
Grading: Pass/No Pass
Prerequisite: None
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: Must be currently employed by a law enforcement/public safety agency or have completed a Basic Peace Officer Academy.
Transfer Status: None                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

Basic Peace Officer Training (BPOT)

BPOT 001  Basic Peace Ofcr Training - Module III Units: 7

This course is referred to as the Module III Academy and is designed to meet the minimum requirements of a Level III Reserve Officer as established by the Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST). It is the first of three components of the Regular Basic Course-Modular Format Academy required to become a full time peace officer. The Module III Academy is a discipline/stress oriented program with an emphasis on Professionalism/Ethics & Leadership, Physical Fitness, Vehicle Operations, Arrest Methods/Defensive Tactics, Report Writing, First Aid/CPR, and Firearms training. In addition there are inspections, drill training (formation, facing movements, marching, etc.), and physical exercises (running, push-ups, sit-ups, jumping jacks, etc.). Recruits attend the Academy in full uniform. There are 6 knowledge based examinations administered throughout the course which require a recruit to receive a passing score in order to successfully complete the Module III Academy. Students must also successfully pass Arrest Methods/Defensive Tactics and Firearms testing. There are a total of 168 hours required in this course.
Lecture Hours: 99         Lab Hours: 81          Repeatable: No
Grading: Letter
Prerequisite: None
Advisory: ENG-070
Limitation on enrollment: None
Transfer Status: None                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None

BPOT 002  Basic Peace Officer Training -Module II Units: 12

This course is referred to as the Module II Academy and is designed to meet the minimum requirements of a Level II Reserve Officer as established by the Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST). It is the second of three components of the Regular Basic Course-Modular Format Academy required to become a full time peace officer. The Module II Academy is a discipline/stress oriented program with an emphasis on Community Relations, Physical Fitness, Cultural Diversity, Arrest Methods/Defensive Tactics, Investigative Report Writing, Chemical Agents training and Firearms/Shotgun training. In addition there are inspections, drill training (formation, facing movements, marching, etc.), and physical exercises (running, push-ups, sit-ups, jumping jacks, etc.). Recruits attend the Academy in full uniform. There are 9 knowledge based examinations administered throughout the course which require a recruit to receive a passing score in order to successfully complete the Module II Academy. Students must also successfully pass Arrest Methods/Defensive Tactics and Firearms testing. There are a total of 268 hours required in this course.
Lecture Hours: 189         Lab Hours: 81          Repeatable: No
Grading: Letter
Prerequisite: BPOT-001
Advisory: None
Limitation on enrollment: None
Transfer Status: None                 Degree Applicable: AA/AS
COD GE: None                 CSU GE: None                 IGETC: None